Tethered cord ultrasound

A tethered cord is a pathologic fixation of the spinal cord in an abnormal caudal location, so that the cord suffers mechanical stretching, distortion and ischemia with growth and development. In these cases ultrasound is well suited to image the contents of the spinal canal and to look for findings that are associated with a tethered cord (Table) How is tethered spinal cord diagnosed? The tests your child's doctor will use to diagnose tethered spinal cord may depend on your child's age. For newborns younger than 3 months, the easiest and fastest way to diagnose this condition is with an ultrasound of the back. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to take pictures the spinal canal Tethered spinal cord is associated with closed and open neural tube defects. With prenatal screening, spinal defects are consistently diagnosed during fetal life. We show that the conus medullaris can be seen well with prenatal ultrasound, and the diagnosis of tethered spinal cord can be made during fetal life M-mode ultrasound can also be helpful in documenting motion of the cord and nerve roots. The integrity of the cord should be documented. The filum of the cord and its thickness should be noted For children younger than eight weeks of age (and possibly in utero), a tethered cord may be observed using ultrasonography. Ultrasonography may still be useful through age 5 in limited circumstances. MRI imaging appears to be the gold standard for diagnosing a tethered cord. A tethered cord is often diagnosed as a low conus

Spine ultrasound provides a high resolution imaging technique to rule out common and uncommon vertebral column pathologies like tethered cord syndrome and other spinal dysraphisms. Indications. Midline or paramedian masses; Midline skin discolorations; Skin tags; Hair tufts; Hemangiomas; Small midline dimples; Paramedian deep dimple Tethered Cord syndroom . Wat is het tethered cord syndroom? Het tethered cord syndroom is een aandoening waarbij het ruggenmerg vast zit aan structuren onder in de rug waardoor het onderste stukje van het ruggenmerg niet vrij kan bewegen. Hoe wordt het tethered cord syndroom ook wel genoemd? Het woord tethered betekent vast zittend Een tethered cord ontstaat meestal in de eerste weken van de zwangerschap wanneer het ruggenmerg en de wervelkolom worden aangelegd. Meestal komt een tethered cord samen met een open rug voor (spina bifida), maar soms komt tethered cord ook zonder spina bifida voor. Waarom er dan een tethered cord ontstaat, is niet precies bekend Even more subtly, instead of the spinal cord, a nerve could be adherent to the meningocele sac neck which could also produce a tethered cord. Ultrasound scanning demonstrates a posteriorly herniated fluid-filled sac of varying size with a small neck that is continuous with the thecal sac (Fig. 12) Aim: The study aimed to describe the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with tethered-cord syndrome (TCS) or lower spinal cord (LSC) and to analyse the clinical outcomes and complications during follow-up. Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective study of fetuses diagnosed with TCS or LSC using MRI from January 2015 to August 2019

The Radiology Assistant : Ultrasound of the Neonatal spin

ages using ultrasonography for its diagnostic value in tethered cord syndrome (TCS). This retrospective study included 540 healthy and 8 autopsy-confirmed TCS fetuses. Ultrasonographic measurement of the conus distance was performed when the fetus was in a prone position within the spine in the near field at 14 to 4 spinal ultrasound · Imaging done at Seattle Children's if possible · Imaging results reviewed by referring provider · (more info) Schedule MRI and Sacral Dimple - Tethered Cord Pathway v2.0: Treatment Approval & Citation Summary of Version Changes Explanation of Evidence Rating Typically, the tethered cord is positioned eccentrically and demonstrates reduced or absent movement. Normal Findings This section presents the normal anatomy of the spinal canal and its contents as seen on sagittal and axial US scans obtained from the craniocervical junction to the sacrum Background: Although spinal cord tethering is known to be associated with certain clinical syndromes and cutaneous stigmata, its incidence in healthy infants with simple sacral dimples has not been thoroughly evaluated. Objective: Our objective was to determine the frequency of tethered cord in otherwise healthy patients with simple sacral dimples

It is concluded that the diagnosis of spinal cord tethering can be established rapidly by high-resolution real-time ultrasonography, which may be used in screening patients with suspected occult spinal dysraphism What is Tethered Cord? The spinal cord includes the bundle of nerves that controls leg movement and sensation as well as bladder function. The spinal cord typically divides into small nerve roots at the L2 vertebral body. During development of the spinal cord, tissue and fat, or other body elements that do not belong near the spinal cord can become attached to the spinal cord Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurologic disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. This syndrome is closely associated with spina bifida

A tethered spinal cord is best defined as an abnormal attachment of the spinal cord to the tissues that surround it. The term has acquired a number of different meanings over time. This label has been applied to descriptions of radio- graphic findings and to varied constellations of clinical signs and symptoms 5 Imaging of Tethered Spinal Cord David B. Hinshaw Jr., J. Paul Jacobson, Jason Hwang, and Daniel K. Kido History of Spinal Imaging Visualization of the spine with x-ray imaging was first accomplished in the early 1900s, soon after the discovery of x-radiation by W. Roentgen. This technique improved rapidly and today allows visualization o Tethered cord is an umbrella term for several different conditions. The common factor in all tethered cord conditions is that the spinal cord's movement is restricted at its base. Therefore, during everyday activities, the spinal cord cannot move up and down inside the spinal canal. Instead, it pulls against the restriction

Coexisting tethering of the spinal cord was present in the longitudinal plane. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine (Figure 3 ) showed complete separation of the spinal canal, thecal sac, and neural tissue at about the L2 level by a midline bony spur, a coexisting tethered spinal cord, and a dermal sinus tract Tethered cord syndroom veroorzaakt rek op het ruggenmerg. Hierdoor kan het ruggenmerg beschadigen. Omdat zenuwweefsel slecht herstelt kan dit tot blijvende schade, en daardoor ook blijvende klachten leiden. Daarom is het van belang om de diagnose zo tijdig mogelijk te stellen Learn more about the Tethered Spinal Cord Program: http://www.childrenshospital.org/centers-and-services/tethered-spinal-cord-program Using live illustration.. Ultrasound - an ultrasound is used to take images of spinal cord movement, to indicate if the cord is tethered. MRI - if an ultrasound doesn't give definitive results, an MRI can be used to get in-depth images of the spinal cord and the tissue surrounding it to see if the cord is tethered

Figure 1 - Typical and Tethered spinal cords. Signs of a tethered cord include skin observations such as a hairy tuft, sacral dimple or a fatty mass on the back. A spinal ultrasound will often be ordered to help diagnose a tethered cord. If a tethered cord is found, imaging with an MRI is usually done to gain more detailed information about. KEYWORDS: Diastematomyelia, Split cord malformation, Ultrasound, Tethered cord, Magnetic resonance imaging ABSTRACT Isolated diastematomyelia is a rare form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a sagittal cleft in the spinal cord, conus medullaris and/or filum terminale with splaying of the posterior vertebral elements. This conditio

The study aimed to describe the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with tethered-cord syndrome (TCS) or lower spinal cord (LSC) Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a type of occult spinal dysraphism that may lead to permanent neurologic and orthopedic deficits. Infants with TCS may have lumbosacral cutaneous malformations (LsCMs). We studied 67 infants referred to a single pediatric urology practice for a urological concern unre Tethered spinal cord is associated with closed and open neural tube defects. With prenatal screening, spinal defects are consistently diagnosed during fetal life. We show that the conus medullaris can be seen well with prenatal ultrasound, and the diagnosis of tethered spinal cord can be made during fetal life Ultrasound Examination of the Neonatal and Infant Spine ment for cord tethering. The cord is normally positioned centrally within the spinal canal, and any deviation from normal (eg, apposition to the dorsal aspect of the spinal canal) should be documented

Tethered Spinal Cord Testing & Diagnosis Boston

Source: Thakur NH, Lowe LH. Borderline low conus medullaris on infant lumbar sonography: what is the clinical outcome and the role of neuroimaging follow-up? Pediatr Radiol. Epub 16 Nov 2010; doi: 10.1007/s00247-010-1889-y[OpenUrl][1][CrossRef][2] ### PICO Question: Among infants with borderline conus medullaris on imaging, what is their clinical outcome? Question type: Descriptive Study. Figure 12 - Ultrasound image of a tethered cord. Courtesy S. Schneider, MD Figure 13 - MRI of a tethered spinal cord. A normal conus medullaris lies at the level Figure 14 - MRI of a diastematomyelia showing the split spinal cord and tethering . The conus in this patient lies near th Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is an increasingly recognized clinical disorder, which is usually identified in childhood and is defined as a stretch-induced functional disorder of the spinal cord with its caudal part anchored by an inelastic structure.1, 2, 3 The disproportionate longitudinal growth between the vertebral column and the tethered spinal cord results in stretching of the conus.

Other tethered cord symptoms aren't noticeable until later in life. As a child grows, their spine grows. When part of the spinal cord is stuck in place, the cord slowly stretches as a baby gets bigger. This damages the cord and the nerves around it, which hurts development and presents neurologic issues. There can be a number of neurologic. Tethered Cord Syndrome is a condition where the spinal cord is abnormally attached within the bony spine causing stretching and tugging that can be painful and lead to disability. Normally, the spinal cord moves freely through fluid within the spine from the base of the brain down to the lower back The authors present a case study of a tethered cord in which sonography was in 14 patients with intramedullary spinal cord neoplasms. Results of the ultrasound exams were correlated. Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a type of occult spinal dysraphism that may lead to permanent neurologic and occult spinal dysraphism, tethered cord syndrome, ultrasound Received March 25, 2019. Received revised April 23, 2019. Accepted for publication April 23, 2019. 2 Global Pediatric Health infantile hemangioma in addition to other cutaneou Tethered Cord Syndrome (TCS) is a broad term that encompasses both congenital (primary) and acquired (secondary) pathologies that anchor, elongate and tension the spinal cord[1] The spinal cord fixation produces mechanical stretch, distortion, and ischemia with daily activities, growth, and development[2] This prevents the spinal cord from freely moving, which then increases stress with.

Tethered Spinal Cord Treatment. If left untreated, a tethered spinal cord can cause serious damage to the spinal nerves as a child grows. When treated early on, children with a tethered spinal cord have a normal life expectancy and development. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is utilized during surgery to closely monitor the nerves and muscles Less common pathologies include infectious, neoplastic, or traumatic origin. 9,12-15 Although a tethered spinal cord is diagnosed by either a spinal ultrasound or MRI, only one-fifth of patients with tethered cord lesions will be symptomatic at presentation. 17 In order to determine the child's bowel/bladder and lower extremity functional status, an evaluation by neurosurgery, orthopedics. 4 Neurological Assessment of Tethered Spinal Cord Sanford Schneider A nonambulatory patient in his thirties had been a long-distance runner in college. Over a period of a dozen years he had progressively lost motor strength in his lower extremities until he became wheelchair bound. Multiple prior studies had been nondiagnostic, but on careful neurological examination

Prenatal Diagnosis of Tethered Spinal Cord : Ultrasound


Tethered spinal cord syndrome - Wikipedi

  1. Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Tethered Spinal Cord
  2. ations for LsCMs suggestive of TCS to ensure prompt diagnosis and management and avoid potentially devastating.
  3. The advantage of ultrasound is that sedation is not needed; the disadvantage is that ultrasound can miss cases of spinal cord tethering. For older children with bladder symptoms, an evaluation by a urologist is recommended
  4. Early detection is dependent on the knowledge that tethered cord syndrome exists. Not every child with a cutaneous lesion has a tethered cord but every child warrants at least a spinal ultrasound within the first three months of life. After age 3 months, ultrasound is not able to penetrate the ossified vertebrae and a spinal MRI should be obtained
  5. ations of the spine were reviewed in 25 patients with a clinical diagnosis of tethered spinal cord. In 21 patients (84%), the level of the tip of the conus was below the mid L2 vertebral body. The causes of the tethering were spinal lipomas (72%), tight filum ter
  6. Post-traumatic tethered spinal cord is a condition that can occur following spinal cord injury and can result in progressive deterioration of the spinal cord. Post-traumatic tethered spinal cord is a condition which occurs following injury to the spinal cord where scar tissue forms and tethers or holds the spinal cord to the soft tissue covering which surrounds it called the dura

Two cases showed a tethered cord without lipoma. In one case, the fetus demonstrated diastematomyelia with syringomyelia. In the other fetus, the tethered cord was part of a caudal regression syndrome with partial agenesis of the os sacrum. Figures 4 and 5 show ultrasound images of the conus distance indicating the inadequate ascent of the. cord. As infants age, ossification of the spine leads to loss of the acoustic window. · A spinal ultrasound is simple, non-evasive, and does not require anesthesia or sedation. · Spinal ultrasound is a well-established method to evaluate for suspected spinal dysraphism in young infants. (Ausili, 2018; Cho, 2019; Meyers, 2017; Nair, 2016 However, MRI and ultrasound studies seem to suggest that the conus ascends to the L1-2 interspace sooner in life—by the 40th postmenstrual week. 11 In 1976, Hoffman and colleagues suggested the term tethered spinal cord for patients with a low-lying conus and a thickened filum. 17

Neonatal/Infant Spine - Sonographic Tendencie

The tethered cord must meet criteria of position (below L2 at age 12 and below L3 at birth). The cord does not freely move on cine imaging, and the nerve roots may have an aberrant course. The cord may be fused to vertebral arches. The tight filum measures more than 2mm at the L5-S1 level. May see associated cysts or lipomas on ultrasound or MRI Surgery inadults with tethered cord syndrome: outcome study with independent clinicalreview. J Neurosurg 2001;94(2 Suppl):205-9. Begeer JH, Schreinemachers AL, Terwisga PH. Growth andthe tethered cord syndrome. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1992;2 Suppl 1:23-5. Yamada S, Zinke DE, Sanders D. Pathophysiology of'tethered cord syndrome' Prenatal diagnosis of tethered spinal cord. 2009. Anne Kenned Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from stretching of the spinal cord between 2 fixation points. 1-3 Although TCS is often caused by spinal malformations, such as myelomeningocele, thickened filum terminale, or lipomyelomeningocele, 4 it can present de novo in adults—for example, after a traumatic event or following a pediatric pathology.

Tethered Cord syndroom - Kinderneurologie

  1. ations following delivery.
  2. Der Begriff Tethered Cord (TC) bezeichnet eine Anheftung des Rückenmarkes, deren Ursachen vielfältig sein können, in Form von angeborenen Fehlbildungen, Entzündungen, Verletzungen oder Narbenbildung nach Operationen. Klinische Zeichen können u. a. mittellinige Hautveränderungen, neurologische, orthopädische oder urologische Symptome sein
  3. Tethered cord syndrome. The spinal cord normally hangs freely within the spinal canal. Tethered cord syndrome is a disorder that occurs when tissue attached to the spinal cord limits its movements. Signs and symptoms may include weakness or numbness in the legs and bladder or bowel incontinence
  4. A: Tethered cord is a very treatable condition, especially when diagnosed and treated early. But in some cases, a tethered spinal cord can cause nerve damage. Is it possible to detect a tethered spinal cord before a baby is born? A: A prenatal ultrasound may be able to detect tethered spinal cord before birth
  5. Our wonderful son was born with Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome.Here is our story: What is that bump on his back? R was born (quite dramatically) on March 27, 2011. The first few days, weeks and months afterwards were difficult for me
  6. Trusted Tethered Cord Syndrome Specialist serving Silver Spring, MD. Contact us at 301-557-9049 or visit us at 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 420, Silver Spring, MD 20910: The Metropolitan Neurosurgery Grou
  7. Tethered cord syndrome is a rare neurological condition. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms vary from person to person. In some cases, symptoms may be present at birth (congenital), while others may not experience symptoms until later in adulthood.Features of the condition may include foot and spinal abnormalities; weakness in the legs; loss of sensation.

Tethered spinal cord release is a fairly routine surgical procedure used to treat a tethered cord. There are two types of tethered spinal cord release surgery. In the simplest and most common form, a neurosurgeon makes a small opening in the back of the spine, below the end of the spinal cord, to cut the filum terminale, which is a band of tissue at the end of the spinal cord Tethered Cord Syndrome MRI Scan Showing the Attachment of the Base of the Spine to the Surrounding Tissues. Symptoms. Those affected with tethered cord syndrome are noted to manifest the following: An ultrasound is also helpful in the process of diagnosing the condition Tethered cord syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. It can be congenital or acquired and appear in childhood or adulthood. It is considered progressive

Spina bifida occulta/Tethered cord syndroom - ons verhaal- Spina Bifida Occulta en Tethered Cord Syndroom. Na een zwangerschap van 39 weken en 6 dagen werd na een vrij vlotte bevalling onze zoon geboren. Helemaal perfect. 10 vingers, 10 teentjes, alles zat er op en er aan NEW YORK (R Health) - Ultrasound is a reliable means of screening for tethered cord syndrome in infants with dorsal midline skin stigmata, new research shows. However, such screening is not needed for infants with simple dimple and deviated gluteal fold findings -- who represented the majority of subjects in the current study -- as.. Laminectomy for Tethered Cord A tethered spinal cord is characterized by an abnormal attachment of the spinal cord to the surrounding tissues. The lower end of a normal spinal cord is found in the upper lumbar spinal canal. The attachment to the spinal cord usually causes the spinal cord to end lower in the lumbar or sacral spinal canal

Tethered cord syndroom Ziekenhuis Oost-Limbur

Een tethered cord syndroom kan symptomen geven zoals het lopen op de tenen, het ontstaan van holvoeten en problemen met zindelijk worden. Infectie Er bestaat een kleine kans dat er een infectie ontstaat van de sacrale dimple Spinal tumors, dural fistulas, Chiari malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), tethered spinal cord, spinal stenosis (1) Harel R and Knoller N. Intraoperative spine ultrasound: application and benefits spinal agenesis, low cord, tethered cord, hydromyelia, diastematomyelia, myelocystocele, and myelomeningocele. Spinal ultrasonography may be used as the primary screening tool, reserving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for cases where spinal ultrasound is equivocal or has revealed a definite abnormality

Spine ultrasound imaging in the newborn

The authors studied these nonrandomly associated birth defects to determine if a further relationship exists between VACTERL association and the presence of a tethered spinal cord (TSC). Methods From 2001 to 2004, 12 patients with VACTERL association who were treated operatively by a single pediatric surgeon underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate the intraspinal abnormalities. which ultrasound is inadequate or insufficient for diagnosis or exclusion of abnormalities. II. as in patients being evaluated for a sacrococcygeal dimple and tethered cord or when searching for the presence of hematoma after an unsuccessful or traumatic spinal tap Not sure if she has what they call a sacral dimple. Just looks like a long butt. At her 2 month appointment the furry patch was mentioned as s potential concern for tethered cord although she has had it from birth and this is first time anyone said anything of this sort. An ultrasound was ordered for this Thursday Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1-11 with occult spinal dysraphism and group 2- 28 with secondary spinal cord tethering after previous closure of a myelomeningocele or resection of a lipomyelomeningocele. Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by magnetic resonance imaging or spinal ultrasound As spinal cord can be tethered posteriorly due a band of tissue running into the sac and hence therefore during surgical correction it is essential to perform a thorough intradural inspection to transect all the adhesions in order to prevent future damage due to spinal cord tethering (Delashaw JB et al., 1987)

MRI evaluation of fetal tethered-cord syndrome

A tethered spinal cord is one in which the spinal cord nerves grow attached to a spot on the spine. This limits the ability of the spine to move. A pediatrician (children's doctor) will look closely at a sacral dimple to decide if it may be a sign of a spinal issue Women with spina bifida present both obstetrical and anesthesia challenges. They are more likely to require a caesarian delivery and traditionally neuraxial anesthesia has been avoided due to concerns of worsening neurologic disability. The case of a pregnant woman with a history of a surgically corrected lipomeningocele and tethered cord is presented to illustrate the need for a comprehensive.

I posted a week back about my LO's tethered cord and know there's a mama on here who just had the surgery. Wondering how it went?! Been thinking about you every day since we will be going through it soon Myelomeningocele typically is detected through routine ultrasound during the 18th to 22nd week of pregnancy. A preliminary diagnosis can be made as early as 16 weeks through a blood test that screens for maternal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

Prenatal Ultrasound Evaluation of the Position of Conus

A tethered cord occurs when the spinal cord (usually at the lower end) is not attached correctly to the rest of the body. The cord gets stretched and damaged. The signs and symptoms of a possible neurological complication like a tethered spinal cord include The fetal spine, Pearls, NMNS, Normal spine, Ossification of fetal spine, Conus medullaris, Miscellaneous spinal anomalies, Single thoracic hemi-vertebra, Isolated anomalous L1 vertebrae, Vertebral dysplasia, Costochondral dysplasia, Sacral dysgenesis with absent sacral vertebrae, Kyphosis, Sharp kyphosis with spinal dysraphism, Scoliosis, Severe scoliosisT9 down, Missed scoliosis in limb body. Tethered Cord. The imaging diagnosis of tethered spinal cord is distinct from the clinical diagnosis of tethered cord syndrome. The clinical signs of tethered cord syndrome include pain (especially with flexion), bowel and bladder dysfunction, weakness, sensory changes, gait abnormalities, and musculoskeletal deformities of the feet and spine such as clubfoot and scoliosis A five-month-old male presented with an incidentally found low-lying conus medullaris on ultrasound and subsequent MRI demonstrating its position at L4. Pre-operative examination findings included mild, global hypotonia and a coccygeal dimple without bladder or bowel abnormalities or spasticity. The patient underwent spinal cord untethering with a section of filum terminale and was discharged.

Pin on Ultrasound Images

Tethered Cord • Tethered cord, or low-lying conus medullaris, is caused by incomplete regressive Differentiation and failed involution of the terminal cord. • Symptoms occur because of traction on the abnormally anchored filum terminale and adjacent nerve roots. Lowe et al. Sonography of the Neonatal Spine: Part 2, Spinal Disorders Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital malformations of the central nervous system (CNS). They develop between the 3rd and 4th week of pregnancy and are often caused by folate de.. The following information refers to Spinal Cord Vascular Birthmarks/Lesions. For ease in understanding, I am presenting them in two types: superficial only and compound. The Superficial ONLY lesions are a vascular birthmark (hemangioma, port wine stain, angiokeratoma, avm, etc.) that presents at the base of the spine on the skin. The Compound spinal cord vascular Continue reading Spinal.

US of the Spinal Cord in Newborns: Spectrum of Normal

occulta, tethered cord en diastematomyelie (gespleten myelum) (1-5). OSD komt voor bij 0,5 - 2 op de 1000 pasgeborenen; in 50% van de gevallen gaat OSD gepaard met huidafwijkingen (2). Vroege detectie en eventuele chirurgische correctie van OSD kan symptomen en complicaties, zoals neurologische uitval en recidiverende infecties van he New study find that Ultrasound is a reliable tool in the diagnosis of Tethered Cord Syndrome in infants at moderate to high-risk. Tethered cord syndrome is a neurological syndrome in which tissue attachments limit movement of spinal cord, and if severe, it can cause sensory as well as motor deficits 9 Dick E A, Bruyn de R. Ultrasound of the spinal cord in children: its role. Eur J Radiol. 2003; 13 552-562 10 Coley B D, Murakami J W, Koch B L. et al . Diagnostic and interventional ultrasound of the pediatric spine Also last prayer request my middle son Cale will be having an MRI soon to check for tethered spinal cord.. ( I posted about this a while back but it literally took four months to get into the neurosurgery appointment where I absolutely knew they would order one I was right and there's always so much red tape to get around .

Ultrasound: An ultrasound of the spine can be done when the child is younger than 6 months as a screening to determine the level of the conus. Movement T1-weighted MRI of spinal cord tethered by a lipomyelomeningocele: Shown is the spinal cord with an intradural lipoma leaving its dorsal surface at L2-3 The aim of this study was to establish normal ultrasound measurements of lumbosacral spine in children as a screening assessment of tethered cord or postoperative retethering of cord. Sonography of lumbosacral spine was performed in 108 neurologically normal children (mean age = 2.1 years) using 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer

Neuroradiology On the Net: Tethered cordA Gallery of High-Resolution, Ultrasound, Color Dopplerneonatal spine sonography | ultrasound tips & tricksTethered Spinal Cord - Radiology ImagingNeonatal spine ultrasound
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